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Book Title: Critique of Practical Reason|
The author of the book: Immanuel Kant
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Edition: Dover Publications
Date of issue: February 2nd 2004
ISBN 13: 9780486434452
Format files: PDF
The size of the: 921 KB
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The second of Kant's three critiques, Critique of Practical Reason forms the center of Kantian philosophy; published in 1788, it is bookended by his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Judgement. With this work Kant establishes his role as a vindicator of the truth of Christianity; he approaches his proof by presenting positive affirmation of the immortality of the soul and the existence of God. The philosopher offers an argument concerning the summum bonum of life: people should not simply search after happiness, but follow the moral law and seek to become worthy of the happiness that God can bestow.
This Critique comprises three sections: the Analytic, the Dialectic, and the Doctrine of Method. The Analytic defines the ultimate moral principle, the categorical imperative, and argues that to obey it is to exercise a freedom. The Dialectic make the assumption that immortality and God exist, arguing that pure practical reason falls into error when it expects perfection in this world; we should anticipate finding perfection in the next world, with God's help. The final section, the Doctrine of Method, offers suggestions in educating people in the use of pure practical reason.
A seminal text in the history of moral philosophy, this volume offers the most complete statement of Kant's theory of free will and a full development of his practical metaphysics.
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Read information about the authorImmanuel Kant was an 18th-century philosopher from Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He's regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of modern Europe & of the late Enlightenment. His most important work is The Critique of Pure Reason, an investigation of reason itself. It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics & epistemology, & highlights his own contribution to these areas. Other main works of his maturity are The Critique of Practical Reason, which is about ethics, & The Critique of Judgment, about esthetics & teleology.
Pursuing metaphysics involves asking questions about the ultimate nature of reality. Kant suggested that metaphysics can be reformed thru epistemology. He suggested that by understanding the sources & limits of human knowledge we can ask fruitful metaphysical questions. He asked if an object can be known to have certain properties prior to the experience of that object. He concluded that all objects that the mind can think about must conform to its manner of thought. Therefore if the mind can think only in terms of causality–which he concluded that it does–then we can know prior to experiencing them that all objects we experience must either be a cause or an effect. However, it follows from this that it's possible that there are objects of such a nature that the mind cannot think of them, & so the principle of causality, for instance, cannot be applied outside experience: hence we cannot know, for example, whether the world always existed or if it had a cause. So the grand questions of speculative metaphysics are off limits, but the sciences are firmly grounded in laws of the mind. Kant believed himself to be creating a compromise between the empiricists & the rationalists. The empiricists believed that knowledge is acquired thru experience alone, but the rationalists maintained that such knowledge is open to Cartesian doubt and that reason alone provides us with knowledge. Kant argues, however, that using reason without applying it to experience will only lead to illusions, while experience will be purely subjective without first being subsumed under pure reason. Kant’s thought was very influential in Germany during his lifetime, moving philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists & empiricists. The philosophers Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer saw themselves as correcting and expanding Kant's system, thus bringing about various forms of German Idealism. Kant continues to be a major influence on philosophy to this day, influencing both Analytic and Continental philosophy.
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